Increased Precautions We're Taking in Response to COVID-19
As updates on the impact of the coronavirus continue to be released, we want to take a moment to inform you of the heightened preventative measures we have put in place at Longleaf Hospital to keep our patients, their families, and our employees safe. All efforts are guided by and in adherence to the recommendations distributed by the CDC.

Please note that for the safety of our patients, their families, and our staff, on-site visitation is no longer allowed at Longleaf Hospital.

  • This restriction has been implemented in compliance with updated corporate and state regulations to further reduce the risks associated with COVID-19.
  • We are offering visitation through telehealth services so that our patients can remain connected to their loved ones.
  • Alternate methods of communication for other services are being vetted and may be offered when deemed clinically appropriate.

For specific information regarding these changes and limitations, please contact us directly.

CDC updates are consistently monitored to ensure that all guidance followed is based on the latest information released.

  • All staff has received infection prevention and control training.
  • Thorough disinfection and hygiene guidance has been provided.
  • Patient care supplies such as masks and hand sanitizer are being monitored and utilized.
  • Temperature and symptom screening protocols are in place for all patients and staff.
  • Social distancing strategies have been implemented to ensure that patients and staff maintain proper distance from one another at all times.
  • Cleaning service contracts have been reviewed for additional support.
  • Personal protective equipment items are routinely checked to ensure proper and secure storage.
  • CDC informational posters are on display to provide important reminders on proper infection prevention procedures.
  • We are in communication with our local health department to receive important community-specific updates.

The safety of our patients, their families, and our employees is our top priority, and we will remain steadfast in our efforts to reduce any risk associated with COVID-19.

The CDC has provided a list of easy tips that can help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue and then immediately dispose of the tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.

For detailed information on COVID-19, please visit

IED Signs, Symptoms & Effects

Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a mental health condition that is characterized by impulsivity, hostility, and recurrent aggressive outbursts.

Understanding IED

Learn about IED

The violent behavior and angry outbursts associated with this disorder are grossly out of proportion to the activating situation. Individuals with IED may attack others, break possessions, and cause bodily harm and property damage. During the aggressive episodes associated with this disorder, a person may suddenly lose control, break or smash things, hit or try to hurt someone, or threaten to hurt someone.

This disorder is typically diagnosed in the early teen years after an individual has had at least three episodes of impulsive aggressiveness at any time. Those with IED describe their aggressive episodes as spells or attacks in which the explosive behavior is preceded by a sense of tension or arousal and then followed by a sense of relief. After the sense of relief dissipates, the individual usually feels upset, remorseful, or embarrassed about the behavior. While this disorder can be extremely disruptive, with the proper treatment and medication, you can learn how to get your anger under control and react appropriately to specific situations.


IED statistics

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, intermittent explosive disorder affects as many as 7.3% of adults, which equates to 11.5-16 million Americans, throughout their lifetime. Of those in the United States diagnosed with IED, 67.8% had engaged in direct interpersonal aggression, 20.9% in threatened interpersonal aggression and 11.4% engaged in aggression against objects.

Causes and Risk Factors

Causes and risk factors for IED

Like most types of mental illness, it is thought that the cause of intermittent explosive disorder is a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Genetic: There may be a genetic component that causes this disorder to be passed down from parents to children. The likelihood that you may be diagnosed with this heritable condition increases if you have a first-degree relative who also has IED or who struggles with other psychiatric conditions.

Environmental: Some individuals believe that IED is caused by growing up in an environment where unduly harsh punishments were carried out by parents. Children in this environment may grow up believing that violence is the best way to restore damaged self-esteem or to solve problems. Additionally, as a child, they may have witnessed their parents or others close to them act out explosively or in violent ways which could serve to normalize these behaviors.

Risk factors:

  • Being male
  • Presence of a co-occurring mood, anxiety, or personality disorder
  • Certain medical conditions
  • Traumatic brain injuries
  • History of physical abuse
Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of IED

The explosive eruptions of intermittent explosive disorder usually last less than 30 minutes, resulting in verbal assaults, injuries, and the deliberate destruction of property. These episodes occur in clusters separated by periods of nonaggression. Some symptoms experienced by individuals with IED may include:

Behavioral symptoms:

  • Breaking things and causing property damage
  • Verbal and physical aggression
  • Road rage
  • Constantly getting into fights
  • Increased energy
  • Acts of self-harm
  • Suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts

Physical symptoms:

  • Bodily tension
  • Fatigue after an aggressive episode
  • Tingling
  • Tremors
  • Chest tightness
  • Hearing an echo
  • Heart palpitations

Cognitive symptoms:

  • Racing thoughts
  • Inability to concentrate or focus
  • Poor performance in school or work settings

Psychosocial symptoms:

  • Low frustration tolerance
  • Intense anger
  • Irritability
  • Rage
  • Depressed mood
  • Guilt
  • Shame

Effects of IED

The long-term effects of untreated intermittent explosive disorder can affect virtually every part of a person’s life. People with IED experience significant impairment in their daily functioning and the longer the disorder goes untreated, the harder it is to successfully recover from IED. Long-term effects of untreated intermittent explosive disorder include:

  • Loss of job
  • School suspension
  • Divorce or problems with personal relationships
  • Impairment in social areas
  • Accidents
  • Hospitalization due to injuries from fights or accidents
  • Financial problems
  • Incarceration or other legal problems
Co-Occurring Disorders

IED and co-occurring disorders

It is common for those with intermittent explosive disorder to have another mental disorder as well. Some of the most common co-occurring disorders include:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Depression disorders
  • Substance use disorders
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Personality disorders
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It was devastating watching our little girl battle her issues and not knowing how to help her. We were referred to Longleaf and it’s truly amazing the difference we’ve seen in just a short time.

– Anonymous Patient

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