Increased Precautions We're Taking in Response to COVID-19
As updates on the impact of the coronavirus continue to be released, we want to take a moment to inform you of the heightened preventative measures we have put in place at Longleaf Hospital to keep our patients, their families, and our employees safe. All efforts are guided by and in adherence to the recommendations distributed by the CDC.

Please note that for the safety of our patients, their families, and our staff, on-site visitation is no longer allowed at Longleaf Hospital.

  • This restriction has been implemented in compliance with updated corporate and state regulations to further reduce the risks associated with COVID-19.
  • We are offering visitation through telehealth services so that our patients can remain connected to their loved ones.
  • Alternate methods of communication for other services are being vetted and may be offered when deemed clinically appropriate.

For specific information regarding these changes and limitations, please contact us directly.

CDC updates are consistently monitored to ensure that all guidance followed is based on the latest information released.

  • All staff has received infection prevention and control training.
  • Thorough disinfection and hygiene guidance has been provided.
  • Patient care supplies such as masks and hand sanitizer are being monitored and utilized.
  • Temperature and symptom screening protocols are in place for all patients and staff.
  • Social distancing strategies have been implemented to ensure that patients and staff maintain proper distance from one another at all times.
  • Cleaning service contracts have been reviewed for additional support.
  • Personal protective equipment items are routinely checked to ensure proper and secure storage.
  • CDC informational posters are on display to provide important reminders on proper infection prevention procedures.
  • We are in communication with our local health department to receive important community-specific updates.

The safety of our patients, their families, and our employees is our top priority, and we will remain steadfast in our efforts to reduce any risk associated with COVID-19.

The CDC has provided a list of easy tips that can help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue and then immediately dispose of the tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.

For detailed information on COVID-19, please visit

Aggression Signs, Symptoms & Effects

Aggression describes a variety of socially unacceptable behaviors that are undertaken with the intention of establishing dominance and/or causing fear or harm.

Understanding Schizophrenia

Learn about aggression

As the following list indicates, examples of aggression include both direct and indirect actions that can have a physical and/or psychological impact:

  • Invading an individual’s personal space
  • Hitting, punching, or slapping
  • Kicking
  • Shooting or stabbing
  • Sexual assault
  • Destruction of property
  • Threatening a person with physical harm
  • Threatening to harm a person’s loved ones
  • Spreading rumors, gossip, and/or lies with the intention of harming a person’s reputation, social standing, or employment
  • Online harassment, including using emails, text messages, social media posts, and other forms of technology to transmit threatening or otherwise harmful messages

Aggression is often, but by no means always, a symptom of a mental or behavioral health disorder. When a person’s aggression is associated with such a disorder, it is essential that the individual receives effective personalized treatment at a clinic, center, or another program.

Aggression that results from a mental or behavioral health disorder is not a problem that can be eradicated by punishment; instead, alleviating such aggression can only occur when the individual completes a comprehensive assessment, receives an accurate and complete diagnosis, and follows an effective personalized treatment plan.


Aggression statistics

Aggression is a difficult behavior to track with a high degree of accuracy. However, certain effects of aggression, such as domestic violence, sexual assault, criminal attacks, and bullying, are charted by various agencies and organizations. According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS), which is produced by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 33% of women and about 16% of men will be victims of sexual violence. Data collected by NISVS researchers also indicates that about 23 million women and 1.7 million men in the United States have been the victims of completed or attempted rape at some point in their life.

A survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services indicates that as many as 40% percent of male teens and as many as 30% of female teens will perpetrate an act of serious violence on another person before the teens reach age 18. The CDC has reported that about 49% of students in grades 4 through 12 have told researchers that they have been bullied, while as many as 70% of school staff told researchers that they have witnessed acts of bullying.

Causes and Risk Factors

Causes and risk factors for aggression

Individuals may act aggressively for a variety of reasons, some of which (such as to defend themselves or their loved ones from an immediate threat) are completely justified and understandable. However, for those who have a tendency to engage in unwarranted aggression, the cause of this behavior pattern may be due to a variety of genetic and environmental factors such as the following:

Genetic: People who inherit certain personality traits may have a greater likelihood for acting aggressively, as can individuals who develop certain mental health disorders that have a genetic component. Recent advances in genetic research indicate that as much as 50% of a person’s risk factor for aggression may be due to genetic factors. Evidence suggests that genetic variations in how a person’s body processes dopamine, serotonin, and epinephrine/norepinephrine may be associated with an increased or decreased likelihood of aggressive behaviors.

Environmental: A wide variety of environmental factors can influence a person’s likelihood for aggression. For example, studies have shown that children who are subjected to violent punishments by their parents or who are otherwise exposed to trauma are more likely to engage in aggressive or violent behaviors later in life. Exposure to media images of violence, especially at a young age, may also predispose a person to act with aggression, as does associating with peers who act in an aggressive manner. Substance abuse can also significantly increase the likelihood that a person will act aggressively. Other environmental influences on aggression include diet, sleep patterns, exposure to stress and pressures, the presence or absence of effective social support, and certain traumatic brain injuries.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of aggression

As noted earlier on this page, aggression can take a variety of forms, including both direct and indirect attacks that are designed to cause physical, emotional, social, and/or economic harm. The following are examples of the signs and symptoms that a person may exhibit before or during acts of aggression:

  • Agitation
  • Hyperarousal and hypervigilance
  • Paranoia
  • Dramatic mood swings
  • Argumentativeness
  • Delusions
  • Poor judgment
  • Impaired coping skills
  • Substandard communication skills
  • Disorganized thinking
  • Depression

Effects of aggression

By definition, aggression includes acts that are perpetrated upon others. However, a person who behaves in a chronically aggressive manner is also likely to experience a variety of negative effects and outcomes themselves, including but by no means limited to the following:

  • Family discord, separation/divorce, and loss of child custody
  • Strained or ruined interpersonal relationships
  • Physical injury due to tendency to engage in fights
  • Physical injury due to risky or reckless behaviors, such as aggressive driving
  • Onset or worsening of mental health disorders
  • Poor performance in school and/or at work
  • Academic failure and/or job loss
  • Chronic unemployment
  • Legal problems, including arrest, fines, and incarceration
  • Financial instability
  • Social isolation
  • Depression
  • Substance abuse and addiction
  • Pervasive sense of hopelessness and/or helplessness
  • Social withdrawal and isolation
Co-Occurring Disorders

Aggression and co-occurring disorders

As noted earlier on this page, aggression can be a symptom of a mental health disorder. The following are among the more common mental health disorders that may prompt a person to act with aggression:

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Intermittent explosive disorder (IED)
  • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Depressive disorders
  • Substance use disorders
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The lessons and skills I learned at Longleaf will last me a lifetime.

– Anonymous Patient

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